Towering over coffee-colored waters, a majestic tree, the bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), dominates isolated swamps of the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
Although more common to swamps in the southeast, stands of bald cypress can still be found in parts of Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. Inhabiting areas too wet for many other types of trees, the bald cypress catches attention with its buttressed trunk and odd knobby "knees."
A member of the redwood family, the bald cypress has needles and cones, but is not an evergreen. Deciduous, the needles turn brown in autumn and fall off by winter, giving the tree its common name, bald cypress.
The tree's feather-like appearance is produced by its flattened needles. The reddish brown to gray bark is stringy and flakes away from wood, peeling off in strips. Flowers are borne on round cones.
Growing up to 150 feet high, very old bald cypress trees may reach a diameter of 10 feet or more. More often, though, they approach 120 feet high and are 3-5 feet in diameter.
Adapted to swamp life, bald cypress trunks widen at the base to provide additional support in the soft, wet soil. Shallow roots spread out from the base of the trunk. Where water stands during part of the year, roots develop into elongated "knees" that grow above the mud and correspond to the high water level. The knees help to anchor the tree and may aid in respiration.
Because they do not produce seeds every year, bald cypress trees must be long-lived in order to reproduce. Conditions must be just right for a seed to develop into a tree. Seeds must set down on a hummock, a knoll of land, that remains moist, but not flooded, for three to five years before the sprout can grow into a thriving seedling. Seeds are dispersed by wind and water.
Bald cypress wood is valued for both interior and exterior building materials. The heartwood is durable even when it comes in contact with the soil or if exposed to the elements. Bald cypress wood is very resistant to most insects and rot. Because of the wood's durability, large tracts of cypress swamps, from Virginia south to Texas, have been logged.
Bald cypress often share the swampy landscape with other water-tolerant tree species such as black gum, sweet gum, red maple and a variety of oaks and hickories.
In the understory, look for persimmon, sweet pepperbush, swamp azalea and southern arrowwood. Lichens and mosses may add a soft coat to trunks and logs. Open water supports both floating and submerged plants.
These forested swamps provide homes for wading birds, such as herons and egrets, and waterfowl, such as mallards and wood ducks. Many songbirds, such as the Kentucky warbler, hooded warbler, prothonotary warbler, yellow-throated warbler, ovenbird, Louisiana waterthrush and yellow-breasted chat, depend on these swamps for migratory and breeding habitat. Cavity nesters, such as woodpeckers and owls, are right at home here.
Temporary pools are excellent breeding grounds for frogs, toads and salamanders. Snakes and turtles take advantage of both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Even fish find food and refuge among the twisted submerged roots.
Muskrat, raccoons and otter are a few of the mammals that live in these forested wetlands.
There are still areas in the Bay watershed where one can find bald cypress swamps. Explore and enjoy!
- Trap Pond State Park, near Laurel in Sussex County, DE.
- Trussum Pond Route, near Laurel in Sussex County, DE.
- Pocomoke State Park, near Snow Hill in Worchester County, MD.
- Battle Creek Cypress Swamp, near Prince Frederick, in Calvert County, MD.
- First Landing State Park, near Cape Henry in the city of Virginia Beach, VA.